# Backoff Factor Requests

This setting also gives a bound on the time in which a consumer must complete a read if they begin from offset 0 to ensure that they get a valid snapshot of the final stage (otherwise delete tombstones may be collected before they complete their scan). Psycopg2 ssl - meg-italia. Because of its structure, the meaning of this sentence is fairly clear. This parameter is the value by which the wait time (-t) is multiplied on each successive request; it must be entered as a floating-point number (x. mechanisms with multiple backoff strategies for any sort of failed operations. In addition, the device can be configured to specify the threshold for the number of failed attempts before the user experiences a delay in entering the password again. Communities can only be adopted by an active community member, though, so before you post your request please be sure you meet the Adoption guidelines. Method and Apparatus for Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Transmission The “cool” factor for Ana is when. A backoff factor to apply between attempts after the second try (most errors are resolved immediately by a second try without a delay). s = requests. Sorry for the interruption. Used as the base for exponential retry. 11 Wireless LANs Performance Luciano Bononi, Marco Conti, and Enrico Gregori Abstract—IEEE 802. backoff_factor Introduces a delay time between retries that is longer after each retry. Put requests are more powerful than batchWrites but cannot be done in batch form. Implementing this is straight forward: if requests to a service are resulting in a high number of failures, flip a flag and stop trying to send requests to service for a period of time. As per documentation for Retry: if the backoff_factor is 0. 4 To ﬁnessea proof, note that a network is, to a very good approximation, a linear system. Other backoff algorithms have been proposed, such as the Multiplicative Increase and Linear Decrease (MILD) algorithm in [3]. What does this mean? This strongly suggests that the S3 user does not have the right permissions to perform a HEAD request. Kid: Kabhi naam nahi puchha,. // add jitter so requests that start in unison won't fall into lockstep. Because of its structure, the meaning of this sentence is fairly clear. If the request succeeds, the BS will allocate bandwidths to the SS. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cric. businesses have continued to refine their attack code, according to research released this. This paper presents an adaptive backoff algorithm for the contention-. For Geometric Retransmission (K=1), the network is always unstable when operating at the undesired stable point pA. The timeout will be randomly chosen within the range [min, min + factor*2^n] where n is the number of failed attempts. **Keyword arguments:** *timeout* - An absolute timeout in seconds, for the combined HTTP request and response processing. The range is from 1 through 3, and the default value is 2 seconds. For internal use only; no backwards-compatibility guarantees. Simula Metropolitan is a research center with activities within networks and communications, machine learning and IT management. Everything At One Click Sunday, December 5, 2010. Yet, out of context, every single noun in that sentence can also function as a verb, and vice versa. For tasks that require high level of reliability, use acks_late in combination with retry. By voting up you can indicate which examples are most useful and appropriate. Use retry_backoff to reduce the boilerplate code when doing exponention backoff. Performance Analysis of Various Backoff Algorithms at MAC Layer Based on IEEE 802. The algorithm for that backoff is documented here: A backoff factor to apply between attempts after the second try (most errors are resolved immediately by a second try without a delay). -Reduced the number of API requests in Dropbox. *media_request_timeout* - The media request timeout in seconds. Yet, out of context, every single noun in that sentence can also function as a verb, and vice versa. The Backoff software has been used to target more than 1,000 businesses, according to the U. Requests for Proposals - Safety and Human Factors. If the backoff_factor is 0. whitelist_transaction(client_transaction) # By default, any payment sent from you is already considered whitelisted, # so there is no need for this step for server transactions. from requests. The five variants witnessed in the “Backoff” malware family have notable modifications, to include: 1. What are you going to call the initial report of thousands of requests per second then?. Initial backoff window size for contention BRs, expressed as a power of 2. Welcome to the Beckhoff Information System The Beckhoff Information System is a constantly growing reference source for Beckhoff products. xml periodically, and whenever the client is shut down, so that it can be read back in and restored when the client is restarted. My initial, naive attempt involved something along the lines of increasing a base $\frac{M}{N}$ sleep by a factor of 2 each time an $\frac{N-x}{N}$ threshold of 50%, 75%, 87. API microgateway deployment. be approached with a wide range of backoff factor q or initial backoff window size W. We now turn to a deeper analysis of the ubiquitous Ethernet LAN protocol. the old CW [5] by a factor of a persistence factor (PF). As of version 1. 0 - a Python package on PyPI - Libraries. In a variety of computer networks, binary exponential backoff or truncated binary exponential backoff refers to an algorithm used to space out repeated retransmissions of the same block of data, often to avoid network congestion. ) From the sales order window, select each line by pressing the Ctrl key and clicking the mouse. backoff Factor: number = 2. Absolutely would second this feature request! Splashtop, please put two-factor authentication on the roadmap. In case of error, retry this Mono up to numRetries times using a randomized exponential backoff strategy. Long backoff periods can mitigate the. Sends a HTTP request and implements a retry logic. Statistical interactions of the explanatory variables are used to examine the inﬂuence of the practices thought to be consistent with those favored by typical public and private organizations. when using fixed intervals, the user may wait for the data forever. Otherwise, the SS multiplies its backoff window by a factor of two, as long as it does not exceed the maximumvalue W max. To rectify this, in MACAW, backoff counters are propagated via. Netsurion Defense Against Backoff. The destination will respond with a clear to send (CTS) if it is available to receive data (i. If the backoff_factor is 0. The ExponentialBackoff class accounts for this by including a randomization factor within our retry logic that allows us to have each simultaneous API call stagger at different intervals. s = requests. Design and Analysis of an Adaptive Backoff Algorithm for IEEE 802. In this paper, we propose a new backoff algorithm for. tasksUnhealthy (gauge) Number of unhealthy tasks for a given application; tagged by app_id and version Shown as task: marathon. Use the backoff-factor option to specify the length of the delay in seconds. frame and backoff time has expired, transmission can begin immediately If previous frame contained errors, medium must be free for EIFS If medium is busy, access is deferred until medium is idle for DIFS and exponential backoff Backoff counter is decremented by one if a time slot is determined to be idle. Should be equal to or greater than 1. Backoff Point-of-Sale Malware Alert A new version of PoS (Point-of-Sale) Malware, “Backoff,” has been connected to several recent PoS data breaches. The solution: check the IAM permissions. The timeout will be randomly chosen within the range [min, min + factor*2^n] where n is the number of failed attempts. destination status cache. 1 CRLF [ message-body ] ; Section 4. Quality translation platform Translate. The default is 1. 1 Broker Configs. Throttling can be triggered if you exceed 1 request per second continuously. If the channel is clear when the backoff counter reaches zero, the node transmits the packet. output-prefix:Prefix added to all output files during the construction of a randomized language model. Yet, out of context, every single noun in that sentence can also function as a verb, and vice versa. Because of a request from the project, i. xml periodically, and whenever the client is shut down, so that it can be read back in and restored when the client is restarted. Kafka Streams. Unit 42 has discovered a new Point of Sale (POS) malware family, which includes multiple variants created as early as November 2014. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cric. The selected lines will be highlighted. Should be equal to or greater than 1. The ASBA adopts effective adjustment of Contention Widows by using the collision state in every stage. In the event of a collision, a real-time station attempting retransmission should use a shorter backoff than on its first failed attempt in order to reduce delay and jitter. Everything At One Click Sunday, December 5, 2010. The five variants witnessed in the “Backoff” malware family have notable modifications, to include: 1. Note that when a request is retried, the timeout is increased by the SNMP backoff factor. import requests from requests. Exponential Backoff. Range is 1-5. urllib3 will do all of the hard work for you to catch the conditions mentioned above, with sane (read: non-intrusive. The selected lines will be highlighted. pyhystrix A library to patch requests package in order to add following functionalities by default:. Kubernetes Kafka Manifests. check-interval = 15s # Check interval multiplier for backoff interval # Required, positive number backoff-factor = 2. In addition, the device can be configured to specify the threshold for the number of failed attempts before the user experiences a delay in entering the password again. CONTENTION RESOLUTION ALGORITHMS FOR CATV NETWORKS BASED ON THE DVB/DAVIC PROTOCOL V. Consider the following English sentence, which might describe some logic around retry backoff: Increase the delay if the request hits a timeout. In the aftermath of the recent hacking incident at Community Health Systems, the healthcare sector is evaluating how to improve cybersecurity intelligence, threat information sharing and incident preparedness. 3BSD (Berkeley UNIX) TCP was mis-behaving or if it could be tuned to work better under abysmal network conditions. Let’s go over writing a Databricks notebook to authenticate and push some data to the API. [env var: POGOMAP_PROXY_TEST_TIMEOUT]-pxre PROXY_TEST_RETRIES,--proxy-test-retries PROXY_TEST_RETRIES Number of times to retry sending proxy test requests on failure. This page is where you can request administrator and/or bureaucrat rights on communities without an active admin and/or bureaucrat team. A method to determine a back-off adjustment and transmission power adjustment in a wireless transmit/receive unit (WTRU), the method including determining a problem in signal reception and adjusting a back-off and a transmission power based on a plurality of measurement results. This parameter is the value by which the wait time ( −t ) is multiplied on each successive request; it must be entered as a floating-point number (x. 1, then sleep () will sleep for [0. dat temporary storage for discovered track data. You might run into issues if you’re creating too many requests against the ServiceNow API. Once Backoff has been deployed, the malware begins exfiltrating consumer payment data using encrypted POST requests. 11 MAC Mechanisms for Quality of Service (QoS) in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). debuglevel taken from open source projects. This post is going to be a follow up from a research which dates back to December 2014, called "The Backoff POS Trojan operation". Proposed contention resolution with EIED backoff for bandwidth request 2. 5%, etc was passed. Specifies the backoff factor to apply between connection attempts to NexentaStor management REST API server. 5 then Nexenta Cinder driver will sleep for [0. If the channel is clear when the backoff counter reaches zero, the node transmits the packet. Simula Metropolitan is a research center with activities within networks and communications, machine learning and IT management. On the basis of this assertion, the SP can decide whether or not to authorize or authenticate the service for the end user. backoff must be greater than 1, 10 or. s = requests. [root-me] XPath injection – blind. For each request, our API associates a unique request identifier to it. Then the criminals are able to deploy the Backoff malware, which scrapes the PoS system's memory for payment data and sneaks it out of the infected network hidden in an encrypted web upload (an HTTP POST request) to servers controlled by the crooks. 11 DCF networks, Binary Expo-nential Backoff (BEB) is adopted (i. Retransmitted packets would therefore have a better chance of accessing the medium than new arrivals. min(backoff * backoffFactor, backoffMax). Simula Metropolitan is a research center with activities within networks and communications, machine learning and IT management. Yet, out of context, every single noun in that sentence can also function as a verb, and vice versa. Current user-level Ethernet today (2013) is usually 100 Mbps, with Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard in server rooms and backbones, but because the potential for collisions makes Ethernet speeds scale in odd ways, we will start with the 10 Mbps formulation. For your average app you are unlikely to trigger throttling. We have been receiving a large volume of requests from your network. Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers industry-leading scalability, data availability, security, and performance. backoff-threshold number —Threshold for the number of failed login attempts before the user experiences a delay when attempting to reenter a password. 4s, ] between retries. Backoff factor. MAC protocol issues beyond the passive RFID system Auto-ID Labs China, Japan, and Korea Shanghai Meeting Fudan University Nov. retry import Retry. Psycopg2 ssl - meg-italia. The stable regions of the backoff factor q and the initial backoff window size W are derived, and illustrated in cases of the basic access. backoff algorithm for contention resolution, which assumes that all losses are caused by collisions and always doubles the contention window to reduce contention upon a frame loss. of working—exponential backoff—but a proof of this is be-yond the scope of this paper. only on 5xx status codes. Change Theme. December 30, 2999. retry_backoff_delay_factor. Request Backoff Start. This post contains drawings that may be NSFW. Because of its structure, the meaning of this sentence is fairly clear. Prabhnoor Bachhal1, To overcome the collision problem binary backoff algorithm is used. 1, then sleep() will sleep for [0. In contrast, throughput stability can still be achieved by Exponential Backoff (K=∞) networks, yet. 100 -st SNMP timeout—Timeout, in seconds, during which the script waits for a response after a request is sent. -Fixed uploading some files to Box did not work. customer_id: A str AdWords customer ID for which the report is being downloaded. The backoff algorithm used by WideMac which we call MBEB (Modified Binary Exponent Backoff) holds a local backoff exponent BE to each node initialized with BE min This local value will be transmitted in each beacon and used by the other nodes wishing to send data to the transmitting node. replicas to 2, and produce with request. For internal use only; no backwards-compatibility guarantees. Internal Investigation Spots Breach. 11 networks lack empirical evidence demonstrating their real-life performance. It would speed up the. 93 – 06902 Sophia Antipolis – France {mibrahim, salouf}@sophia. In this formula, the scaling factor denotes a ﬁxed constant (same value at all stations), and allows the choice of suitable. xml periodically, and whenever the client is shut down, so that it can be read back in and restored when the client is restarted. of working—exponential backoff—but a proof of this is be-yond the scope of this paper. This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. When backing off from an operation the first wait backoff = backoffInitial and for each consecutive wait backoff = Math. Upon the onset of another delivery request, the remote LMTP server associated with the current session does not respond to the RSET command. dat temporary storage for discovered track data. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the exmaples you don't like. depend on the backoff parameters such as the retransmission factor q and the cutoff phase K. API microgateway deployment. Exam4Training have a brilliant Microsoft AZ-300 Microsoft Azure Architect Technologies Online Training with most recent and important questions and answers in PDF files. For each request, our API associates a unique request identifier to it. retry_backoff_delay_factor. This behavior causes what is known as “Channel capture effect” in the network. # DO NOT USE retries or backoff_factor here. Using BACKOFF may help when queries fail with “not enough replicas”. (Override ATP is intended for exceptions only. for debugging porposes) you have issued, please be sure to include the request identifier as this will greatly facilitate resolution on both sides. -B n Backoff factor. Intelligent backoff protocols are an important factor in maintaining service reliability for large services where clients continously attempt to reconnect. Request a title and a Carfax record, which will dismiss all scamming hacks and save you a problem at the DMV. 5, then the first timeout will be 500ms, the second 750ms and the third 1125ms. To continue with your YouTube experience, please fill out the form below. If insufficient data is available the request will wait for that much data to accumulate before answering the request. However, as we will show in Section IV, the performance of these backoff schemes are still quite far away from the maximum utilization of the IEEE 802. At runtime, the client needs to additionally request up to 4 backoff factors for each 5-gram requested from the servers, thereby multiplying network traffic. The Backoff software has been used to target more than 1,000 businesses, according to the U. Complete list of Qualcomm NV items From what I've seen, no NV item list is as complete or up to date(yet already outdated ). Your clients will send you HTTP requests containing their transaction. output-prefix:Prefix added to all output files during the construction of a randomized language model. USSS, NCCIC/US-CERT and Trustwave Spiderlabs have been working together to characterize newly identified malware dubbed "Backoff", associated with several PoS data breach investigations. In the default mode, fping sends several requests to a target before giving up, waiting longer for a reply on each successive request. The answer to both of these questions was “yes”. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the exmaples you don't like. The selected lines will be highlighted. GET JSON Requests – does not protect forgery for GET requests out of the box. Consider the following English sentence, which might describe some logic around retry backoff: Increase the delay if the request hits a timeout. By default, no randomisation is applied on the backoff delay. total) plummets the moment exponential backoff kicks off. The per-process limit on the number of delivery requests is reached. A typical scenario would be to create a topic with a replication factor of 3, set min. Current user-level Ethernet today (2013) is usually 100 Mbps, with Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard in server rooms and backbones, but because the potential for collisions makes Ethernet speeds scale in odd ways, we will start with the 10 Mbps formulation. If your task does I/O then make sure you add timeouts to these operations, like adding a timeout to a web request using the requests library: connect_timeout , read_timeout = 5. Every strategy will return a new function that accepts the amount of attempts that were previously executed as its only parameter and returns the matching delay. In the Wireless Mesh Networks, there are numerous requests from different devices at the same time, network congestion will happen. This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. [sharding] # how many servers in the cluster should have a copy of each shard. To do that we add some randomized factor (or jitter) into every duration from a backoff policy thereby reducing chances that several clients will be retrying simultaneously. Hystrix brought to Python - 1. They are answered only when the broker has enough data; the request can be outstanding for a longer period of time. A value of one indicates the first retry and so on. The queue manager sorts delivery requests by destination. Initial backoff window size for contention BRs, expressed as a power of 2. This will ensure that the producer raises an exception if a majority of replicas do not receive a write. However, because the locks are test-and-test-and-set locks, they incur in-validation trafﬁc on every attempted modiﬁcation of the shared global lock variable, which is especially costly on NUMA machines. It would speed up the. Sword art online: Integral Factor v1. (Should I use retry or acks_late?) Set hard and soft time limits. It’s domain agnostic, highly customizable, extensible and provides a minimal API that’s easy to instrument in any code. This is saved in a file called client_state. My initial, naive attempt involved something along the lines of increasing a base $\frac{M}{N}$ sleep by a factor of 2 each time an $\frac{N-x}{N}$ threshold of 50%, 75%, 87. 4 To ﬁnesse a proof, note that a network is, to a very good approximation, a linear system. Also, if, oddities aside, thumbnail generation takes longer than the second or so it takes all four requests to complete to generate thumbnails, it may be worth having some backoff factor if “pending” keeps getting returned. 5, then the first timeout will be 500ms, the second 750ms and the third 1125ms. The answer to both of these questions was “yes”. 1876; Empty configuration sections become merge-able with variables containing full path. GET with retry on multiple failure status codes: import requests import pyhystrix pyhystrix. 00 CPU backoff time --Backoff Interval - ATI backoff time --Backoff. Dairy Queen said it will provide identity-repair services for a year to customers of. Twilio’s request to your application includes details of the event like the body of an incoming message or the incoming phone number. However, client errors (4xx) indicate that you need to revise the request to correct the problem before trying again. Everything At One Click Sunday, December 5, 2010. Method and Apparatus for Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Transmission The “cool” factor for Ana is when. 1 shows the sequence of events that are involved in retrieving a document. 11’s CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queueing in devices such as routers. Package Servers on the child make a packageinfo request to their NS and are redirected to the parent. For example, using our previous backoff but now with randomization, one API call may retry with these intervals: 1. Backoff Point-of-Sale Malware Alert A new version of PoS (Point-of-Sale) Malware, “Backoff,” has been connected to several recent PoS data breaches. html#BanachP98 Bill Stoddart Steve Dunne Andy. If no Response message is received within a certain time interval, the Requestor re-sends the request. CSMA/CA BASED AD-HOC NETWORK USING MAC PROTOCOL Er. 5%, etc was passed. The per-host timeout is multiplied by this factor after each timeout. Rangel1, R. Two-factor Authentication. In some embodiments, only one CC serves as a backoff channel In some embodiments, the transmission feedback value is a Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request, HARQ, transmission feedback value and CW is increased only if a ratio of negative acknowledgments, NACKs, to acknowledgements, ACKs, on each backoff channel exceeds a threshold. Want a quote from Backoff Robert J? We recommend getting 3 quotes for any construction project. With every unsuccessful attempt, the maximum backoff interval is doubled. If the network becomes saturated, in contrast, it operates at the undesired stable point p=p A, and a stable throughput can be achieved at p A if and only if the backoff parameters are properly selected. Absolutely would second this feature request! Splashtop, please put two-factor authentication on the roadmap. 390] chances of seizing the channel and resulting in channel domination by the successful nodes. Sends a HTTP request and implements a retry logic. NET Core", we saw how to quickly set up a minimal Orleans 2. Thomas Weiss. A backoff factor to apply between attempts after the second try (most errors are resolved immediately by a second try without a delay). This post is a reboot of my initial article about Request Unit provisioning on DocumentDB. versial and noncontroversial budget requests. Look for out other truths about the automobiles' record, such as which its previous proprietors were and also any upkeep done by the car dealership. If the channel is not clear when the backoff counter reaches zero, the backoff factor is set again, and the process is repeated. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Once the limit is reached, additional connection requests (e. You wait one second, try again, then two seconds, and so on. When the backoff time has expired, the node will “sense” the channel to determine if there is another node transmitting. Fortunately, (total = 3, backoff_factor = 0. case of Exponential Increase and Exponential Decrease Backoff Algorithm (EIED) in which whenever a packet transmitted from a node is involved in a collision, the contention window size for the node is increased by backoff factor rI and the contention window for the node is decreased by factor rD if the node transmits a packet successfully[1]. The request is then processed and the client experiences an increase in latency. Default is True. destination status cache. -Reduced the number of API requests in Dropbox. This means that Cloud Functions does not retry HTTP calls—the caller must handle any errors. EWS enables you to batch multiple item requests into a single request that is executed by the Client Access server. Backoff weights may optionally be included as an addendum, to be described later. A proposal for a mechanism with variable backoff factors is presented in Section 3. In the Wireless Mesh Networks, there are numerous requests from different devices at the same time, network congestion will happen. element14 Learning Center Wireless Protocol II: Wi-Fi Sponsored by 1. A backoff factor to apply between attempts after the second try (most errors are resolved immediately by a second try without a delay). If the channel is not clear when the backoff counter reaches zero, the backoff factor is set again, and the process is repeated. total) plummets the moment exponential backoff kicks off. In the event of a collision, a real-time station attempting retransmission should use a shorter backoff than on its first failed attempt in order to reduce delay and jitter. (Override ATP is intended for exceptions only. This would eliminate contention in the network and at the memory modules, but RP3 cost estimates for this approach predict that switch size and/or cost for a 2 X 2 switch could increase by a factor between 6 and 32. This parameter is the value by which the wait time ( -t ) is multiplied on each successive request; it must be entered as a floating-point number (x. Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB) is an algorithm to determine how long entities should backoff before they retry. You can also save this page to your account. One of millions of malware. backoff_factor. To address these problems, we propose a new backoff scheme, the SBA, in the following section. To address this issue, a new analytical framework is proposed in this paper to optimize the random access performance of the M2M communications. But Algorithm::Backoff offers an alternative interface, some additional parameters (like delay on success and jitter factor), a lighter footprint (no Moo), and a couple more strategies. This request or parts of this request have been filled. In rare cases something may go wrong serving your request; you may receive a 4XX or 5XX HTTP response code, or the TCP connection may simply fail somewhere between your client and Google's server. Prabhnoor Bachhal1, To overcome the collision problem binary backoff algorithm is used. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cric. 1, then :func:`. Click Confirm and the Amazon Elasticsearch domain will be launched. If insufficient data is available the request will wait for that much data to accumulate before answering the request. retry module¶. Further, the requirement for enhanced backoff mechanism in WiMAX network is due to type of accessing mechanism. Note: Oracle hidden parameters are undocumented and unsupported by Oracle. Session ''' totalで5回リトライをする backoff_factor=1の場合、リトライ間隔は、1回目は1秒、2回目は2秒、3回目は3秒・・・ status_forcelistで定義されたstatusのときのみリト. Jimmy can utilize an incorrect configuration. Dairy Queen said it will provide identity-repair services for a year to customers of. Note that it's best to have # group by time() intervals on all queries be < than this setting. Simula Metropolitan is a research center with activities within networks and communications, machine learning and IT management. HTTPConnection. check-interval = 15s # Check interval multiplier for backoff interval # Required, positive number backoff-factor = 2. customer_id: A str AdWords customer ID for which the report is being downloaded. Absolutely would second this feature request! Splashtop, please put two-factor authentication on the roadmap. * * @return The retry handler that will be used by the custom http Exponential backoff is an algorithm that retries requests to the server based on certain status codes in the server The exponential backoff feature of the Google HTTP Client Library for Java provides an easy way to retry on transient failures:. Based on compiled timestamps and versioning information witnessed in the C2 HTTP POST requests, “Backoff” variants were analyzed over a seven month period. HTTP functions are invoked at most once, due to their synchronous nature. It is the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or services. Pods enable you to share storage, networking, and other resources among a group of applications on a single agent, address them as one group rather than as separate applications, and manage health as a unit. This is applied at the Exchange Server level and restricts the amount of resources you can consume in the Office 365 environment. The MS in the proposed system has the flexibility to switch over from one contention mechanism to other by referring the value in channel quality information (CQI) channel. A proposal for a mechanism with variable backoff factors is presented in Section 3. Doubling the backoff factor on subsequent retransmissions is the “second part” of Karn’s algorithm. session() s. Here are the examples of the python api RequestsLibrary. Yet, out of context, every single noun in that sentence can also function as a verb, and vice versa. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to$585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over$1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: