Gatling Post Json Body Example

json-simple json-simple 1. 0 assembly How to use entities from an other eSpace in Outsystems POST multiple parameters to an ASP. body-parser. The rest of the stuff in the project code is Rest-Assured test methods. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. This is mostly a follow-up of the article Robot Framework, REST and JSON. It's only the transport method that differs. This runs simulations using Maven plugin, an executable jar file, or a Docker container - jecklgamis/gatling-test-example. After all, the fact that individual Java classes work successfully in isolation does not mean that the application itself will also work correctly ,when all these. How to parse JSON Array in Flutter SDK. As an example, I am going to use a beta JSON interface to the MusicBrainz web service. In this tutorial we will see how to correlate JSON based web applications in HP LoadRunner using Data Format Extension. If we wanted to do a POST request with a JSON body and basic authentication, as well as verify something in the response: The expression used to extract someField from the response is passed to jsonPath() and is based on Goessner’s JsonPath syntax. For example with Java you can do as shown below:. Remember, starting with version 18. HTTPie is a command-line HTTP client. Gatling 2 - Logback Debug Not Outputting JSON Body - Content Type Application/Json Tag: logback , gatling I am using Gatling 2, below is my logback. spring boot rest post JSON example. This runs simulations using Maven plugin, an executable jar file, or a Docker container - jecklgamis/gatling-test-example. It supports Javascript and does whatever you want like creating a variable, reading some values from a file,etc. Body: The actual text of the outbound message; Now comes a slightly wonky bit we need to do in order to pass our HTTP basic auth credentials to Twilio in this API request. OkHttp is introduced as a very efficiency Http client with HTTP/2 support or connection pooling reduces request latency, etc. This is the simplest setup. Stringify but I'm having a problem when I parse the cookie and try to push a new object to the array to then stringify it again. Caution: Your project will have an existing service account, but this should not be altered. In the one above we are saying we will have 10 users execute 5 requests each in parallel. Pre Request Script. net using c#, vb. The main purpose of the Flask-JSON extension is to provide a convenient tool for creating JSON responses. After reading the documentation over and over again and trying all kinds of Property-Expansions the value is always empty. Having a large collection of unit tests that verify the behaviour of Java classes is only the first step to a sound testing strategy. 10,000 words is around 60 KB, so when using JSON-LD in this manner your web page would be 60KB larger and therefore slower to load (especially on mobile devices using non-wifi connections). Example Project. There can be only one body parameter, although the operation may have other parameters (path, query, header). For example, the following structure in the message body will result in the following Outline view: Form View (available in SoapUI Pro only). We have number of functions in jQuery to kick-off an ajax request. How to get JSON POST body on Asp. post constructs an Observable with configured POST request and when the Observable instance is subscribed, POST request is executed on the server. It is one of the very easy ways to extractor from text content. It can be a plain text, JSON, XML object or a file. I manage to send the POST request and the response from my server is OK (200). Receiving JSON POST data via PHP. As recommended, try using these with a. Gatling Stress Tool: Example Simulation with a Circular Feed Here is a simple example of a Gatling Stress Tool simulation that uses a circular feed to populate the request body. It is extremely. I am a professional Web developer, Enterprise Application developer, Software Engineer and Blogger and writing blogs is my passion. REST and SOAP. urlencoded(options) * Parses the text as URL encoded data (which is how browsers tend to send form data from regular forms set to POST) * and exposes the resulting object (containi. jsonp([body]) res. Add on the HTTP client it works for Content-Type however it fails for "Authorization" saying that it is a misuse of the header name. A common need when building a restful API is the ability to accept a JSON encoded entity from the request body. These are the top rated real world C# (CSharp) examples of RestSharp. Here we want articles objects to have fields title, body and author only and people objects to have name field only. This is a simple example of a JSON Schema, but the usefulness is clear. js as a platform, then we almost use expressjs as our web framework. To run the script in the command line interface, the folder containing the gatling. stringsdict formatting; JSON sample files; PHP sample files; PO file features; QT Linguist Format (. A typical JSON POST request might look a little like the following, The property res. How to use HttpClient to post Json data to WebService in Windows Store apps sample in C#, VB. 0 We’re excited to announce the release of. You can get more information about rest-assured here. When I try to use Headers. Request specs are marked by :type => :request or if you have set config. Gatling is a lightweight DSL written in Scala that comes with the interesting premise of "treating your performance tests as production code". Using Riposte, one writes a sequence of commands—which amount to HTTP requests—and assertions, which require that the response meets certain. With json_response() you can: Create JSON response by passing keyword arguments:. start / stop your application server. Spring TestContext Framework 4. For example, if you’re currently viewing 20 messages and the oldest is number 2912, you could append “?older_than=2912″ to your request to get the 20 messages prior to those you’re seeing. These are the top rated real world C# (CSharp) examples of RestSharp. To convert JObject parameter to TripObject model, you could refer to the following code: Code in Api Controller:. All other response related features uses it. Select a language for code samples from the tabs above or the mobile navigation menu. This implementation is using Indy10 for the http protocol. Dec 21, 2016 · How do I pass json string in Stringbody with dynamic values in Gatling? I formatted JSON string body, and found there quotes in places where JSON objects start. There's no easy way to simply retrieve raw data to a parameter in an API method, so a few extra steps are provided using either manual handling of the raw request stream, or by creating custom formatter that can handle common 'raw' content types in your APIs via standard Controller method parameters. This post is just one part of a tutorial series. The request is created with http(). Thanks for Sharing the information about Load Testing in Web Services, For More information check the detail on the load testing here Software Testing Company. In our fetch json example (run fetch json live), we create a new request using the Request constructor, then use it to fetch a. The optional body parameter contains the request body. Mainly this was due to my lack of knowledge of the POST and PUT request format. So let's get our hands dirty. We specified that we were sending a POST request by setting the CURLOPT_POST option to 1. In many cases the request body will be in some higher-level format. We use is() to verify the expected value is equal to some value. Through my blog, I will discuss about sending JSON objects with ajax request using JQuery. Net MVC Razor. The object has string values for first name and last name, a number value for age, an object value representing the person's address, and an array value of phone number objects. Example broadcast message:. NET Core the process is not very self-explanatory. We attached our JSON data using the CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS option. With POST, form data appears within the message body of the HTTP request. Installation guides - Learn how to setup ThingsBoard on various available operating systems. And then it'll work. curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d "{'json':{'data. Since it is using Grape there is no need to download the libraries. A JSON body with the bucket information and a Content-Type: application/json header have to be included in the request that instructs the file to be stored on GCS. It’s not too clear in this article, but at the time the first promise resolves, we do NOT YET have the response body (the part that will be parsed to JSON) so you can think of. If you need to post data to server HTTP POST request is to be used. It performs a request using HTTP POST method. Gatling is a powerful open-source Performance Test tool released in December, 2011. io) or on. How to parse JSON Object in Flutter SDK. API Blueprint is a documentation-oriented web API description language. These are the top rated real world C# (CSharp) examples of RestSharp. com name="John" Host:example. Purpose This post is in continuation to the post - Save response body in Gatling It explains how you can extract one of the attribute value of json response and pass it to next request using Gatling EL. JsValue] request. The following code snippet show you how to send POST request with a JSON body using HttpClient. NET Core API Controllers. length 1 vectors are converted to scalars). generate sample request json body from swagger 2. jQuery is a library that is a wrapper of JavaScript and it also supports handling of events, DOM, effects and AJAX. Examples express/connect top-level generic. But you can submit a form with a valid JSON structure in the body as enctype="text/plain". You can add as many keys as needed, depending on how many things you want to test for. $ http POST http://example. Safest to use less than 2K of parameters, some servers handle up to 64K. There are a lot of products and tools available that provide access to his functionality using rest api. How to POST data to REST API in SQL Server (Send data to URL) The following example shows how to POST data to API service where data is coming from an embedded string in SQL Server using a Linked Server. With this post I want to introduce a basic example of using HttpClient and JSON objects. How to make a POST request using Powershell if body have a parameter @type Welcome › Forums › General PowerShell Q&A › How to make a POST request using Powershell if body have a parameter @type This topic contains 10 replies, has 2 voices, and was last updated by. When the broadcast is completed a broadcast result message is returned to the sender. As we remember, we want to post the data in JSON format. In this example, we are sending an XML post request. This can only happen after Gatling has resolved the request, e. io](http://swagger. Contribute to gatling/gatling development by creating an account on GitHub. $ node post_request. I am working on the task of handling dynamic value in json request file body - as per HTTP template documentation for Gatling1. Resource: /api/v2/assessment_question_sections HTTPS Request Method: GET Description: A list of assessment question sections that match the specified parameters. Follow the structure (can be found in this guide), use it as an example and don't forget about common sense™. If not, you'll get a "file not found exception". java source. 5 assembly, by using one dynamic JObject "options" parameter. This blog post will explain how to execute a load test with Gatling for a REST API and where to get body files (body files are for. com, will not receive an email. The “ pets” key has an array that contains Rui’s pets’ names and it has the values “ Max ” and “ Dique ” inside. For example, we make a call to an API, save the response and pass the response to another API call. If a JAXB type is used as the return type on a resource method,. We set the content-type of our request to application/json using the CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER option. stringsdict formatting; JSON sample files; PHP sample files; PO file features; QT Linguist Format (. The main purpose of the Flask-JSON extension is to provide a convenient tool for creating JSON responses. 5 to make a Http POST request. How to parse JSON in Java JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight, text-based, language-independent data exchange format that is easy for humans and machines to read and write. Unit Test Code Example 1; Filters Examples; AJAX GET & Spring MVC Example; AJAX POST & Spring MVC Example; AJAX POST JSON Data & Spring MVC Example; Consuming RESTful APIs with ngResource and Spring MVC; Post with RESTful APIs, ngResource and Spring MVC; Single Page App with RESTful APIs; How to Create Custom Service. API Blueprint is a documentation-oriented web API description language. You can send data as either form-encoded data or JSON. POST JSON to a REST service using soapUI. As an example, I am going to use a beta JSON interface to the MusicBrainz web service. Core project). I think the issues with the original post are: 1. The following example shows how you can get or fetch the JSON POST data using PHP. Hierarchical JSON Format (. You can edit the Gatling simulation , and change the numbers as appropriate. POSTing JSON Data With PHP cURL I got this question the other day: how to send a POST request from PHP with correctly-formatted JSON data? I referred to the slides from my web services tutorial for the answer, and I thought I'd also put it here, with a bit of explanation. The HTTP POST request method requests that the server accepts the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the web resource identified by the URI. JSON Example. In the fifth example we will look at two different ways to set HTTP headers on the requests sent, how to set a body when doing a HTTP POST and finally how to add parameters to the URL. The 'HTTP parameters' sent by POST are the POST request's body. In this way you can also import and use different packages of the same name in Go language. For example, when creating a resource using POST or PUT, the request body usually contains the representation of the resource to be created. We attached our JSON data using the CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS option. The main purpose of the Flask-JSON extension is to provide a convenient tool for creating JSON responses. Note that you need to specify integration-test. Just beware that in functional testing, you'll be adding much more validations, and those of course eat CPU, so you might want to either have different simulations for load testing, or disable those extra validations then. The following are 43 code examples for showing how to use pycurl. Safest to use less than 2K of parameters, some servers handle up to 64K. hmkcode; Language: Kotlin. JSON can represent two structured types: objects and arrays. The 'HTTP parameters' sent by POST are the POST request's body. make a get call and use the extracted value in header. JSONArray;. UnityWebRequest. The default parameters that are using internally in args and query_args properties to parse queryset:. 並列 GatlingでJson Bodyにランダムな値を追加する方法 gatling 並列 (1) 毎回ランダムな正の整数を作成し、それをGatlingのJson団体に送信する必要があります。. When the POST verb is used to request the creation of a new Oracle ILOM resource, the input data, at creation time, must specify the required and optional properties. In Gatling, we can also parse a response, for example with JsonPath, extract a value and save it as a variable. For "raw", either a character or raw vector. REST and SOAP. Instead of XML you may provide and accept entities as JSON, a simpler and more concise format. js Component Patterns Book The goal of this course is to teach you the fundamentals to make Vue. A common need when building a restful API is the ability to accept a JSON encoded entity from the request body. The response data will be in JSON format. This is a multi-part guide to walk you through how to make a RESTful API with JSON using Play Framework. Unit Test Code Example 1; Filters Examples; AJAX GET & Spring MVC Example; AJAX POST & Spring MVC Example; AJAX POST JSON Data & Spring MVC Example; Consuming RESTful APIs with ngResource and Spring MVC; Post with RESTful APIs, ngResource and Spring MVC; Single Page App with RESTful APIs; How to Create Custom Service. Using JAX-RS With JAXB. These extensions are called profiles. There are a lot of products and tools available that provide access to his functionality using rest api. Create HTTP POST request with the body from a template file. This post-processor is very much similar to Regular Expression Extractor. You can add as many keys as needed, depending on how many things you want to test for. If you don’t want to deal with handling errors in every marshal, and marshal errors are suitably uncommon,. json([body]) This method is used to send a JSON response. While the physical device will be responsible for displaying the information and capturing the user input, it will be relying on your API to retrieve the information requested. I am a professional Web developer, Enterprise Application developer, Software Engineer and Blogger and writing blogs is my passion. I have written about it at JSON Server tutorial. NiFi templates for all of the discussed examples are available at GitHub – NiFi by Example. By mkyong | January 29, 2017 you can use the cURL command to post a JSON data like all examples are simple and easy to. net is a great choice, but it's *stunning* to me that Microsoft couldn't get their own JSON serialization fixed with 3 different serialization tools (JavaScriptSerializer, DataContractJsonSerializer and now the new System. String st=String(data); Now I want to post st every 5 seconds. These simple examples should get your started with consuming a REST API with PowerShell. In the Headers tab, set the Content-Type as application/json. You can send your the body of the request block as XML or JSON. HelloWorldApplication. net using c#, vb. Make GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE requests; Both syncronous and asynchronous (non-blocking) requests. post constructs an Observable with configured POST request and when the Observable instance is subscribed, POST request is executed on the server. And in your code, the 'json ' parameter hasn't been assigned a value. Safest to use less than 2K of parameters, some servers handle up to 64K. If we wanted to do a POST request with a JSON body and basic authentication, as well as verify something in the response: The expression used to extract someField from the response is passed to jsonPath() and is based on Goessner’s JsonPath syntax. 1) I need to POST to a REST endpoint a request with a JSON body, like One set of data in JSON body - all. Speaking for ourselves and not our employer 4. The request is created with http(). NET Core the process is not very self-explanatory. On this page we will provide angular 2 Http post() example. You do not even need to pass the CURLOPT_POSTFIELDSIZE since by default libcurl will do the strlen() for you. Flutter HTTP Client example with ListView – Fetch data and parse JSON in background In this tutorial, we’re gonna build a Flutter App that use http package to fetch data from the internet, then parse JSON to a Dart List of Objects and display that List in ListView widget. json({ user: 'tobi' }) res. If you have ever consumed an API in the past that doesn’t follow good design, then you end up writing bad code to consume a bad API. Having a large collection of unit tests that verify the behaviour of Java classes is only the first step to a sound testing strategy. AngularJs Get Data From Json File. Following are a few examples − res. JAX-RS can be used to accept POST requests through which we can pass data. wp_remote_retrieve_body() – For retrieving the main body content from the server response; For this tutorial, we will use wp_remote_get() since we wish to retrieve data from an API and then parse it. In the following samples, you can find out how to send a HTTP POST request with C#. The type of the request, "POST" or "GET" defaults to "GET". If no optional parameters are specified, the full list of assessment question sections associated with the account is returned. In a previous tutorial, I showed how to send JSON data via POST in PHP. We use is() to verify the expected value is equal to some value. Mainly this was due to my lack of knowledge of the POST and PUT request format. It adds the Id of the car to be deleted to the URL and then uses the DELETE method:. In this example you will be providing examples of Creating new data into the database and then Reading the data from the database. As always, relevant code snippets can be found over on GitHub. Gatling provides several builtins for reading character-separated values files. The body consists of two parameters plain and html. Of course, additional HTTP-features and -headers (e. After this article, you will learn JSONPath usage with Locust. Convert MySQL to JSON using PHP. But , dances like the jive or even paso doble can burn over four hundred calories, that is comparable to an intense step aerobic 900 Loan With Payback In 5 Months fitness exercise course. For example, specify a byte range using Range: bytes=500-999. You can use the POST request to do device configuration. The rest of the stuff in the project code is Rest-Assured test methods. And some of them like POST use body to send the data to the server. The Request itself is carried in the body of the HTTP message. _wpemojiSettings. net ! https://goo. I can see the request, and all the headers, the body doesn't seem to be anywhere, and I can't find much on the web, because the. We encoded our PHP array into a JSON string by using the function json_encode. POST JSON to a REST service using soapUI. This is a simple example of a JSON Schema, but the usefulness is clear. The scenario consists of requests to the service and response checks, so we can emulate the service usage under a high load. Comparison of XML and JSON representations. In this example, we are sending an XML post request. Testing and validating API responses with JSON Schema 10/12/2017 Featured Cody Reichert Testing and validating JSON APIs is an important aspect of running a quality web service, but managing checks for large and diverse response bodies can be difficult. We placed the payload in an object called StringEntity and also set its content type to ContentType. Relish helps your team get the most from Behaviour Driven Development. Json file is basically data exchange lightweight file. json({ error: 'message' }) res. I’m also validating with check that the newly created comment has body with a value that I specified. Instead of XML you may provide and accept entities as JSON, a simpler and more concise format. import java. body: Now, after the body, you need to specify the content-type (unless you are using a default one for the entire RAML). There are many ways to do this, but perhaps the most commonuses the `Authorization` HTTP header. Most APIs return data in JSON and most values are JSON objects themselves. IOException; import org. net or submit a form without page refresh using jQuery ajax json with example in asp. To validate the JSON payload sent in the HTTP POST request body and then mapped to the above Java bean class, we will use Hibernate Validator Constraints which are already included in our project if you have used Spring Boot to create it and you have the spring-boot-starter-web in your pom. The above example uses ofString which accumulates the response body bytes in memory. The StringBody code line converts the case object into JSON representation for post. FileWriter; import java. With POST, form data appears within the message body of the HTTP request. These simple examples should get your started with consuming a REST API with PowerShell. If you are using Jackson to unmarshal json to a list of map/pojo, you can now specify this by setting useList="true" or use the org. When I try to use Headers. For additional client and developer API access, you should create a new service account. NET Web API is a great tool for building HTTP services with ASP. How can I consume a JSON API with both header and body using C# how pass parameters to web api through ajax call How to form a request body to POST(method) a json in C#. NET 5, MVC and Web API have been merged into a single framework called MVC 6. Policebox API. match request by path. For example, in my case, I will use the sitemap feeder to browse all posts in the blog and do the same test to check theirs no lack of performance for one specific post. Select POST method; Select application/json as Content Type; And now the hardest part™. As we remember, we want to post the data in JSON format. It is extremely. JSON Hash Email Message Format. {"widget": { "debug": "on", "window": { "title": "Sample Konfabulator Widget", "name": "main_window", "width": 500, "height": 500 }, "image": { "src": "Images/Sun. parse and querystring. The request is created with http(). The json string that you have given is an class object, not a list. In this example, the REST endpoint returns this JSON response with true indicating the switch is on. JSON example can be created by object and array. Designed to be completed in 15-30 minutes. body-parser. Gatling simple simulation example This a simple Gatling simulation example. You can use the --data options to specify data to be sent as part of the request. A reminder to myself on how to craft a JSON POST using cURL. In this Spring MVC tutorial, you are going to learn how to use the @PostMapping annotation to make your RESTful Web Service Endpoint be able to handle HTTP Post request and read its JSON or XML body payload. How to get JSON POST body on Asp. Describing Request Body Request bodies are typically used with “create” and “update” operations (POST, PUT, PATCH). When the user click send, the app will build a JSON object holding the three inputs, add the built JSON object to the POST request body and finally execute the POST request. Following are a few examples − res. It is possible to load millions of keys in a few seconds in Redis and Gatling will read them off memory directly. 1) I need to POST to a REST endpoint a request with a JSON body, like One set of data in JSON body - all. For example with Java you can do as shown below:. Request specs provide a thin wrapper around Rails' integration tests, and are designed to drive behavior through the full stack, including routing (provided by Rails) and without stubbing (that's up to you). Alternatively, a streaming subscriber, like ofInputStream could be used. The 2nd Json is the new state stored in a record, after 1 or more changes following execution of a test run. An example test using Gatling. Listen to xhr events for response. Click here to clone or download example source code for jQuery AJAX GET example From GitHub. XML Request as Post Body. If you need to use separate the 'CSV Data Set Config' elements for each Thread, create the number of data files that you need, and set the 'CSV Data Set Config' element from “Sharing mode” to “Current Thread”. jackson-databind 2. In this way you can also import and use different packages of the same name in Go language. Testing and validating API responses with JSON Schema 10/12/2017 Featured Cody Reichert Testing and validating JSON APIs is an important aspect of running a quality web service, but managing checks for large and diverse response bodies can be difficult. Here is an example POST and DELETE (and login) using HTTPBuilder. Example: post: description: The POST operation adds an object to a specified bucket using HTML forms. But you can submit a form with a valid JSON structure in the body as enctype="text/plain". Kraken REST API documentation for Storage, Docker, Command, and Analysis endpoints. So as requested here is a quick example on how POST JSON to a REST service using soapUI. JSON Object Example. The body of the request is a simple JSON clause with two element pairs. You can vote up the examples you like and your votes will be used in our system to product more good examples. In HttpClient. 0 spec Hi everyone, I'm looking for a node. Thank you for learning our post about jQuery AJAX Post Example with PHP and JSON! RELATED TUTORIAL: PHP, MySQL and AJAX CRUD Tutorial - Step by Step Guide! If you think our work is helpful, please share it to your friends!. If no optional parameters are specified, the full list of assessment question sections associated with the account is returned. It comes with a commandline tool, riposte, which executes Riposte scripts. Easily export mysql to json string with php json_encode() function. Describing Request Body Request bodies are typically used with “create” and “update” operations (POST, PUT, PATCH). The globally defined Fetch module allows accessing info from a remote server while creating GET or POST request. The POST request is already explained in my earlier blog Gatling post request with JSON body The example will run the scenario using 5 users for 10 minutes duration with no pauses. The HTTP module provides a functionality, which allows submitting GET and POST requests for both platforms (iOS and Android). post constructs an Observable with configured POST request and when the Observable instance is subscribed, POST request is executed on the server. Build a music Jukebox. The jQuery Post Method with JSON May 16, 2014 by netra_dixit jQuery is a cross-platform client-side scripting language used widely across the globe. 1 Host: rpc. But what of legacy applications that accept POST. Create new android application keep default options. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: